Hormonal Regulation of Spermatogenesis
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This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Steinberger A In vitro techniques for the study of spermatogenesis. Chowdhury AK, Steinberger E Effect of 5alpha reduced androgens on sex accessory organs, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis in the rat. Steinberger E Hormonal control of mammalian spermatogenesis. Russell L Atlas of human spermatogenesis. Infertility Center of St.
In addition to paracrine signals, germ cells also depend upon signals derived from Sertoli by direct membrane contact. Somatostatin is a regulatory peptide playing a role in the regulation of the proliferation of the male gametes.
Activin A, follistatin and FSH play a role in germ cell maturation during the period when gonocytes resume mitosis to form the spermatogonial stem cells and differentiating germ cell populations. Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle : The ovarian and menstrual cycles of female reproduction are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. The pattern of activation and inhibition of these hormones varies between phases of the reproductive cycle. The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining.
These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22—32 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days.
Frontiers | Role of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Spermatogenesis | Endocrinology
The first half of the ovarian cycle is the follicular phase. Slowly-rising levels of FSH and LH cause the growth of follicles on the surface of the ovary, which prepares the egg for ovulation. As the follicles grow, they begin releasing estrogens and a low level of progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, to help ensure pregnancy.
Just prior to the middle of the cycle approximately day 14 , the high level of estrogen causes FSH and, especially, LH to rise rapidly and then fall.
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The spike in LH causes ovulation: the most mature follicle ruptures and releases its egg. The follicles that did not rupture degenerate and their eggs are lost.
The level of estrogen decreases when the extra follicles degenerate. Follicle : This mature egg follicle may rupture and release an egg in response to a surge of LH. If pregnancy implantation does not occur, the lining of the uterus is sloughed off, a process known as menstruation. After about five days, estrogen levels rise and the menstrual cycle enters the proliferative phase.
Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.
The endometrium begins to regrow, replacing the blood vessels and glands that deteriorated during the end of the last cycle. Following ovulation, the ovarian cycle enters its luteal phase and the menstrual cycle enters its secretory phase, both of which run from about day 15 to The luteal and secretory phases refer to changes in the ruptured follicle.
The cells in the follicle undergo physical changes, producing a structure called a corpus luteum, which produces estrogen and progesterone.
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The progesterone facilitates the regrowth of the uterine lining and inhibits the release of further FSH and LH. The uterus is again being prepared to accept a fertilized egg, should it occur during this cycle. The level of estrogen produced by the corpus luteum increases to a steady level for the next few days.
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If no fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, the corpus luteum degenerates and the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease.