LHC Accelerator R&D, Upgrade Scenarios [presentation slides]

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This prototype represents one of 27 modules that will make up a critical section of the Mu2e experiment, the transport solenoid.

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Photo: Reidar Hahn. Mu2e will look for a predicted but never observed phenomenon, the conversion of a muon into its much lighter, more familiar cousin, the electron, without the usual accompanying neutrinos. To do this, it will send muons into a detector where scientists will look for particular signatures of the rare process. The transport solenoid generates a magnetic field that deftly separates muons based on their momentum and charge and directs slow muons to the center of the Mu2e detector. The maneuver requires some fairly precisely designed details, not the least of which is a good fit.

When put together, the 27 wedge-shaped modules will form a tube with the snake-like profile. Muons will travel down this vacuum tube. To guide them along the right path to the detector, the solenoid units must align with each other to within 0. The Magnet Systems team exceeded expectation: The prototype was aligned with times greater precision.

The team achieved not just the right shape, but the right current. The electrical current running through the solenoid coil creates the magnetic field. The Mu2e team exceeded the nominal current of 1, amps, reaching 2, amps. The team delivered 2.

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The module proved robust: The temperature changed by a mere whisker — millikelvin, or 0. The coils will be at 5 Kelvin when operating. The prototype sustained the nominal current at up to 8 Kelvin. Fermilab has selected a vendor to produce the modules. Lopes expects that it will be two and a half years until all modules are complete. Our project continues at full steam ahead. This article appeared in Fermilab Today on July 24, Argonne National Laboratory was attracted to the expertise of this Fermilab magnet team.


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Photo: Doug Howard, Fermilab. The APS is a synchrotron light source that accelerates electrons nearly to the speed of light and then uses magnets to steer them around a circular storage ring the size of a major-league baseball stadium. As the electrons bend, they release energy in the form of synchrotron radiation — light that spans the energy range from visible to x-rays. This radiation can be used for a number of applications, such as microscopy and spectroscopy. The APS Upgrade will create a world-leading facility by using new state-of-the-art magnets to tighten the focus of the APS electron beam and dramatically increase the brightness of its X-rays, expanding its experimental capabilities by orders of magnitude.

Because the APS Upgrade requires hundreds of magnets — many of them quite unusual — Argonne called on experts at Fermilab and Brookhaven National Laboratory for assistance in magnet design and development. Fermilab took on the task of designing, building and testing a pre-prototype for a groundbreaking M1 magnet — the first in the string of bending magnets that makes up the new APS arrangement.

Because of this change in field, this magnet is different from anything Fermilab had ever built. But we did it. Although this pre-prototype magnet is unlikely to be installed in the complete storage ring, scientists working in this collaboration view the M1 development as an opportunity to learn about technical difficulties, validate their designs and strengthen their skills. This article appeared in Fermilab Today on June 22, Steve Gould of the Fermilab Technical Division prepares a cold test of a short quadrupole coil.

Last month, a group collaborating across four national laboratories completed the first successful tests of a superconducting coil in preparation for the future high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, or HL-LHC. These tests indicate that the magnet design may be adequate for its intended use.

Physicists, engineers and technicians of the U. LARP is developing more advanced quadrupole magnets, which are used to focus particle beams.

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These magnets will have larger beam apertures and the ability to produce higher magnetic fields than those at the current LHC. Its members began developing the technology for advanced large-aperture quadrupole magnets around The superconducting magnets currently in use at the LHC are made from niobium titanium, which has proven to be a very effective material to date.

However, they will not be able to support the higher magnetic fields and larger apertures the collider needs to achieve higher luminosities. To push these limits, LARP scientists and engineers turned to a different material, niobium tin. Niobium tin was discovered before niobium titanium. However, it has not yet been used in accelerators because, unlike niobium titanium, niobium tin is very brittle, making it susceptible to mechanical damage.

To be used in high-energy accelerators, these magnets need to withstand large amounts of force, making them difficult to engineer.

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LARP worked on this challenge for almost 10 years and went through a number of model magnets before it successfully started the fabrication of coils for millimeter-aperture quadrupoles. Four coils are required for each quadrupole. After the first coil was built in the United States earlier this year, the LARP team successfully tested it in a magnetic mirror structure. The mirror structure makes possible tests of individual coils under magnetic field conditions similar to those of a quadrupole magnet. The team also demonstrated that the coil was protected from the stresses and heat generated during a quench, the rapid transition from superconducting to normal state.

This article appeared in Fermilab Today on May 1, Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer shakes hands with Jefferson Lab Director Hugh Montgomery by a superconducting coil and its development and fabrication team at Fermilab. A group of Fermilab physicists and engineers was faced with a unique challenge when Jefferson Lab asked them to make the superconducting coils for an upgrade to their CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer experiments.

These are some of the largest coils Fermilab has ever built. It arrived on Thursday. These improvements will allow Jefferson Lab to more accurately study the properties of atomic nuclei. A major component of the enhanced detector is the torus magnet, which will be made from the six superconducting coils created at Fermilab.

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Aside from cleaning, insulating and winding the coils, one of the most important parts of the process is vacuum epoxy impregnation. During this step, air and water vapor are removed from the coils and replaced with an epoxy. This can lead to magnet quench, the transition from superconducting to a normal state — a highly undesirable consequence. The Fermilab group and Jefferson Lab staff collaborated to come up with a solution. By trying new materials, new temperature profiles and adjusting the time that the epoxy was left to sit and be adsorbed, the team was able to prevent the dry areas from forming.

LHC & ATLAS UPGRADES

Production has been steady since December, with Fermilab sending roughly one coil a month to Jefferson Lab. The new feat will allow scientists to study the properties of antimatter in detail, which could help them understand why the universe is made only of matter even though the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter.

Antiprotons and positrons are brought into the ALPHA trap from opposite ends and held there by electric and magnetic fields. Brought together, they form antiatoms neutral in charge but with a magnetic moment. If their energy is low enough they can be held by the octupole and mirror fields of the Minimum Magnetic Field Trap. But the pions must travel through the magnets of the trap before reaching the silicon.

To prevent the particles from scattering multiple times during their journey to the detector, Brookhaven physicists and engineers had to figure out how limit the amount of material used in the magnet. A specially developed 3D winding machine allowed the researchers to build the magnet directly onto the outside of the ALPHA vacuum chamber.

The result is a magnet that looks far different from the bulky, steel-surrounded instrumentation in most particle colliders. In fact, only the superconducting cables are metal. Particles normally travel in straight lines, but in a magnetic field the paths of charged particles curve, with positive and negative particles moving in opposite directions.

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By examining the curvature of the path, it is possible to calculate the momentum of a particle. Particles with greater momentum bend less than those lesser momentum. This is because a particle with greater momentum will spend less time in the magnetic field and thus be affected less. Note that both the above images are from The Particle Adventure which is a fantastic website to learn the basics of particle physics. To guide them along the right path to the detector, the solenoid units must align with each other to within 0.

The Magnet Systems team exceeded expectation: The prototype was aligned with times greater precision.


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  7. The team achieved not just the right shape, but the right current. The electrical current running through the solenoid coil creates the magnetic field. The Mu2e team exceeded the nominal current of 1, amps, reaching 2, amps. The team delivered 2. The module proved robust: The temperature changed by a mere whisker — millikelvin, or 0. The coils will be at 5 Kelvin when operating. The prototype sustained the nominal current at up to 8 Kelvin.

    Fermilab has selected a vendor to produce the modules. Lopes expects that it will be two and a half years until all modules are complete. Our project continues at full steam ahead. This article appeared in Fermilab Today on July 24, Argonne National Laboratory was attracted to the expertise of this Fermilab magnet team. Photo: Doug Howard, Fermilab. The APS is a synchrotron light source that accelerates electrons nearly to the speed of light and then uses magnets to steer them around a circular storage ring the size of a major-league baseball stadium.

    As the electrons bend, they release energy in the form of synchrotron radiation — light that spans the energy range from visible to x-rays. This radiation can be used for a number of applications, such as microscopy and spectroscopy.