Schaums outline of theory and problems of digital principles

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Mixed-method research, i. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights. Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.

Non-empirical theoretical research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge.

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Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on.

See Scientific method. A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge.

Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.

Schaum's Outline of Digital Principles

Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research. When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontology , consequentialism , virtue ethics and value ethics.

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Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios. Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered.

Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research , the most notable Code being the Declaration of Helsinki.

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Research in other fields such as social sciences , information technology , biotechnology , or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research. Nowadays, research ethics is commonly distinguished from matters of research integrity that includes issues such as: scientific misconduct such as fraud, fabrication of data and plagiarism , etc.

Meta-research is the study of research through the use of research methods. Also known as "research on research", it aims to reduce waste and increase the quality of research in all fields. Meta-research concerns itself with the detection of bias, methodological flaws, and other errors and inefficiencies.

Among the finding of meta-research is a low rates of reproducibility across a large number of fields. This widespread difficulty in reproducing research has been termed the " replication crisis. In many disciplines, Western methods of conducting research are predominant. The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection.

Periphery scholars face the challenges of exclusion and linguicism in research and academic publication. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals. Peer review is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication.

Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge.

The tradition of peer reviews being done for free has however brought many pitfalls which are also indicative of why most peer reviewers decline many invitations to review. The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a "public domain", that of "humanity". For instance, most indigenous communities consider that access to certain information proper to the group should be determined by relationships. There is alleged to be a double standard in the Western knowledge system. On the one hand, "digital right management" used to restrict access to personal information on social networking platforms is celebrated as a protection of privacy, while simultaneously when similar functions are used by cultural groups i.

Even though Western dominance seems to be prominent in research, some scholars, such as Simon Marginson, argue for "the need [for] a plural university world". This could be due to changes in funding for research both in the East and the West. Focussed on emphasizing educational achievement, East Asian cultures, mainly in China and South Korea, have encouraged the increase of funding for research expansion. In several national and private academic systems, the professionalisation of research has resulted in formal job titles. Academic publishing is a system that is necessary for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience.

The system varies widely by field and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form. These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine.

Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, from the print to the electronic format.

A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently. Since about the early s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: corporate research and development departments; private foundations , for example, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ; and government research councils such as the National Institutes of Health in the USA [61] and the Medical Research Council in the UK.

These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors. Many senior researchers such as group leaders spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research but also as a source of merit. The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U. Government and private foundation funding sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the search for knowledge. For other uses, see Research disambiguation. For other uses, see Researcher disambiguation.

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For Wikipedia's policy against including it in articles, see Wikipedia:No original research. For the Wikipedia prohibition against user-generated, unpublished research, see Wikipedia:No original research. Main article: Scientific method. This section does not cite any sources.


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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Historical method. Main article: Documentary research. Main article: Meta-research. This article needs to be updated. In particular: This subsection's claims are potentially outdated in the "digital age" given that near-total penetration of Web access among scholars worldwide enables any scholar[s] to submit papers to any journal anywhere.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. May The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Academic ranks , Academics , and Scientists. Further information: Research fellow , Research associate , and Research assistant. See also: Funding of science. This section needs expansion with: funding for research in the humanities and other areas. Presently, only scientific research is addressed. You can help by adding to it. April Advertising research European Charter for Researchers Funding bias Internet research List of countries by research and development spending List of words ending in ology Market research Marketing research Open research Operations research Participatory action research Psychological research methods Research-intensive cluster Scholarly research Secondary research Society for Artistic Research Social research Timeline of the history of scientific method Undergraduate research.

Frascati Manual. Scientific American Frontiers. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 19 February Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson. Original research is considered a primary source". Thomas G. Carpenter Library, University of North Florida. Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 9 August McGraw Hill Professional.


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