Spine Technology Handbook

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The basic tools and terminology of spine treatment -- Synthetic biomaterials for spinal applications -- Structure and properties of soft tissues in the spine -- Biomechanics of vertebral bone -- Musculature actuation and biomechanics of the spine -- Spine disorders : implications for bioengineers -- Historical review of spinal instrumentation for fusion : rods, plates, screws, and cages -- Clinical performance of rods, plates, screws, and cages -- Biologics to promote spinal fusion -- Nucleus replacement of the intervertebral disc -- Total disc arthroplasty -- Vertebral compression fracture treatments -- Standard test methods for spine implants -- Finite element modeling of the spine -- FDA regulation of spinal implants -- Economics and reimbursement for spine technologies.

Handbook of Spine Technology | Boyle Cheng | Springer

Over the past decade, there has been rapid growth in bioengineering applications in the field of spine implants. This book explains the technical foundation for understanding and expanding the field of spine implants, reviews the major established technologies related to spine implants, and provides reference material for developing and commercializing new spine implants. The editors, who have a track record of collaboration and editing technical books, provide a unified approach to this topic in the most comprehensive and useful book to date.

Related website provides the latest information on spine technology including articles and research papers on the latest technology and development.


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Major technologies reviewed include devices used for fusion screws, plates, rods, and cages , disc repair and augmentation, total disc replacement, and vertebral body repair and augmentation. Contact: Email: alibnet gmail. Powered by Koha. Sadvichar Parivar Library Your cart is empty.

Microcallus formations of the cancellous bone: A quantitative analysis of the human spine

Log in to your account. Advanced search Authority search Tag cloud. The principle of the CMM was based on using a 2 mm diameter probe to take 15 randomly selected points across the whole bearing surface of the specimen.


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The collected data points were then computationally reconstructed to generate the profile of the specimen. Eight repeated measurements were taken for the ball and five repeated measurements were taken for the socket. The socket was found to have a mean radius of 7. For analysis the ball radius was chosen as 6.


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In this study the aim was to understand the effect of different radial clearances on stress and lubrication regime, so as well as a radial clearance of 0. Talymap universal 3. The obtained arithmetic mean surface roughness was found to be 0. The corresponding compound surface roughness value Eq.

The angular velocity for the human cervical spine has been reported to be in the range of 0 to 4. This can be easily converted into an entraining velocity using Eq. Interstitial fluid was proposed as the natural lubricant for the intervertebral disc, however bovine serum which is normally used for in-vitro wear testing of disc replacements was also considered [ 21 ]. An interstitial fluid with a viscosity of 1.

For this study, the maximum compressive loading for the cervical disc was assumed to be N, selected according to the recommended value from the ISO standard for testing intervertebral disc prostheses [ 21 ]. Finally, the radial clearance was investigated in the range 0. Variation of maximum contact stress with force for radial clearance values of 0. The predicted minimum film thickness was in the range 0 to 0. This indicates that the PEEK cervical discs will operate within a boundary lubrication regime across the whole range of angular velocities, under N loading.

Trends in Materials for Spine Surgery

Each figure is plotted for a cervical disc arthroplasty under N load, using interstitial fluid as the lubricant, at radial clearance values of 0. The effects of load level on the minimum film thickness and lambda ratio are displayed in Fig. They show that the loading level has a detrimental effect on both the minimum film thickness and the lambda ratio. Moreover, the obtained lambda ratio is always below unity and indicates boundary lubrication.

Each figure is plotted for a cervical disc arthroplasty at a radial clearance value of 0. The minimum film thickness can be enhanced by incorporating a more viscous lubricant; the lambda ratio can be increased in a similar manner. In spite of this, the lubrication regime is still boundary lubrication, regardless of the lubricant used.

This paper has predicted the likely contact stress and minimum film thickness between the bearing surfaces of a PEEK self-mating cervical disc. The calculated maximum Hertzian contact stress was in the range 5. Higher stresses were found for discs with a higher radial clearance. It is predicted that the stress experienced by the contact surface of this disc is insufficient to result in material fatigue. Nevertheless, high cycle fatigue tests of at least 10 million cycles are still required to ensure the structural safety of cervical disc arthroplasty during long-term application [ 21 ].

Spine Survey Demo

Hertzain contact theory assumes that the contact surface is ideally smooth and frictionless and consequently the interaction force i. Although other elastic-smooth contact models, such as the Johnson-Kandall-Roberts model take the adhesion force into account [ 28 ], there would not be any significant difference between these two models, because the surface energy of PEEK is negligibly small at 0. The lubrication analysis assumes steady-state is achieved, under a given constant angular velocity. This is a simplified ideal situation to represent the motion of the neck, which may not be achievable in practice.

The intention of adopting this model is to ascertain the potential of cervical discs to operate under a fluid lubrication regime by altering its radial clearance or lubricant. The basic assumption of the elastohydrodynamic theory is that the lubricants bovine serum and interstitial fluid utilized are Newtonian fluids and there are no shear-thinning effects [ 16 ]. According to the obtained lambda ratio results, the PEEK cervical disc, for all parameters, will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, which means that there will be significant surface asperities contact and wear will occur.

A previous study has shown that for lumbar disc arthroplasty most devices will also operate with a boundary lubrication regime [ 17 ].

Handbook of Spine Technology

According to the recent literature, the wear rate of PEEK self-mating cervical disc arthroplasty is reported as 1. There are concerns that debris generated as a result of wear may induce an adverse tissue response, such as chronic inflammation and osteolysis.

Goodman proposed that the immune response to polymer particles is non-specific and macrophage mediated via the production of cytokines [ 31 ]. Moreover, quantity, composition, and shape of the wear particles all play important roles in determining the host tissue response [ 33 ]. There are plenty of studies [ 32 - 34 ] that report on the biocompatibility of PEEK wear debris, however none focus on wear debris generated in cervical TDA. A more targeted host tissue response study is demanded to further ascertain the biocompatibility of PEEK wear debris generated from cervical total disc replacement.

Cervical disc arthroplasty is a relatively new technology and there is still much debate as to whether its performance is actually superior to that of fusion [ 4 - 7 ]. Studies that have investigated the wear of other cervical disc arthroplasty are few. Anderson et al. Implantation of of a porous coated cervical disc arthroplasty into goats showed no inflammatory response from wear debris after six months implanted in the animals [ 37 ].

Lumbar disc arthroplasty have been studied in more detail [ 38 - 40 ], but a direct comparison with cervical discs is unwise due to the different motions and loads. From this theoretical study, it can be confirmed that a PEEK based artificial cervical disc will operate under a boundary lubrication regime, with the generation of wear debris likely. The maximum contact stress was found to be We thank Dr William A.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Open Biomed Eng J. Published online May 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Abstract This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the maximum contact stress and the lubrication regimes for PEEK Polyether-ether-ketone based self-mating cervical total disc arthroplasty. Keywords: Cervical disc arthroplasty, contact stress, elastohydrodynamic, hertzain, lubrication, PEEK.

Open in a separate window. Contact Stress A Hertzian fully elastic contact model was employed to analyze the maximum superficial contact stress between the bearing surfaces, assumed to be smooth, along with a negligible adhesion force between the contact zone [ 13 , 14 ]. Table 1. Summary of Parameters Used in the Analysis. Contact Stress Fig.