The History of Russian Christianity, Volume 1: From the Earliest Years Through Tsar Ivan IV

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Some agreed voluntarily, under better terms than with Kuchum; others were forced. He also established distant forts in the newly conquered lands. The campaign was successful, and the Cossacks managed to defeat the Siberian army in the Battle of Chuvash Cape , but Yermak was still in need for reinforcements. He sent an envoy to Ivan the Terrible, with a message that proclaimed Yermak-conquered Siberia a part of Russia, to the dismay of the Stroganovs, who had planned to keep Siberia for themselves.

Ivan agreed to reinforce the Cossacks with his streltsi. Yermak's conquest expanded Ivan's empire to the east and allowed him to style himself "Tsar of Siberia" in the tsar's very last years. In Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law Yelena Sheremeteva for wearing immodest clothing, and this may have caused a miscarriage. His second son, also named Ivan , upon learning of this, engaged in a heated argument with his father, resulting in Ivan's striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, fatally wounding him.

Ivan was a poet, a composer of considerable talent, and supported the arts. His Orthodox liturgical hymn, "Stichiron No. Peter", and fragments of his letters were put into music by Soviet composer Rodion Shchedrin. The recording, the first Soviet-produced CD, was released in , marking the millennium of Christianity in Russia. Mirsky called Ivan "a pamphleteer of genius". This contention, however, has not been widely accepted, and most other scholars, such as John Fennell and Ruslan Skrynnikov continued to argue for their authenticity.

Recent archival discoveries of 16th-century copies of the letters strengthen the argument for their authenticity. Ivan was a devoted [35] follower of Christian Orthodoxy and placed the most emphasis on defending the divine right of the ruler to unlimited power under God. He may also have been inspired by the model of Archangel Michael with the idea of divine punishment.

Little is known about Ivan's appearance, as virtually all existing portraits were made after his death and contain uncertain amounts of artist's impression. His eyes are big, observing and restless. His beard is reddish-black, long and thick, but most other hairs on his head are shaved off according to the Russian habits of the time". According to Ivan Katyryov-Rostovsky , the son-in-law of Michael I of Russia , Ivan had an unpleasant face, with a long and crooked nose.

He was tall and athletically built, with broad shoulders and narrow waist. In , the graves of Ivan and his sons were excavated and examined by Soviet scientists. Chemical and structural analysis of his remains disproved earlier suggestions that Ivan suffered from syphilis , or that he was poisoned by arsenic or strangled.

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His body was rather asymmetrical and had a large amount of osteophytes uncharacteristic of his age; it also contained excessive concentration of mercury. Researchers concluded that while Ivan was athletically built in his youth, in his last years he had developed various bone diseases and could barely move.

They attributed the high mercury content in his body to the use of ointments for joints healing. Ivan completely altered Russia's governmental structure, establishing the character of modern Russian political organisation. Ivan's expedition against Poland failed at a military level, but it helped extend Russia's trade, political and cultural links with Europe; Peter the Great built on these connections in his bid to make Russia a major European power. At Ivan's death, the empire encompassed the Caspian to the southwest, and Western Siberia to the east. Southwards, his conquests ignited several conflicts with expansionist Turkey, whose territories were thus confined to the Balkans and the Black Sea regions.

The History of Russian Christianity Volume 1: From the Earliest Years Through Tsar Ivan IV

Ivan's management of Russia's economy proved disastrous, both in his lifetime and after. He had inherited a government in debt, and in an effort to raise more revenue for his expansionist wars, he instituted a series of increasingly unpopular and burdensome taxes. Ivan's notorious outbursts and autocratic whims helped characterise the position of Tsar as one accountable to no earthly authority, only to God.

Ivan's legacy was manipulated by Communist Russia as a potential focus for nationalist pride; his image became closely associated with the personality cult of Joseph Stalin. Ivan the Terrible meditating at the deathbed of his son. Ivan's murder of his son brought about the extinction of the Rurik Dynasty and the Time of Troubles. Painting by Vyacheslav Schwarz Ivan the Terrible by Klavdiy Lebedev , Ivan's repentance: he asks a father superior Kornily of the Pskovo-Pechorsky Monastery to let him take the tonsure at his monastery.

Painting by Klavdiy Lebedev , Ivan the Terrible and souls of his victims, by Mikhail Clodt. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact.

Ivan the Terrible Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Grand Prince of Moscow and 1st Tsar of Russia. For other uses, see Ivan the Terrible disambiguation. A-Ivan - Paperback / Europe / History: Books

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. December Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Russian article. Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.

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Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary using German : Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution.

For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. Cathedral of the Archangel , Moscow. See list. Main article: Oprichnina.

From Ancient Times to the Council Code (Ulozhenie) of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich of 1649

Main article: Massacre of Novgorod. Main article: Siege of Kazan Main article: Russo-Turkish War — Main article: Livonian War. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Main article: Russian conquest of Siberia. This section does not cite any sources.

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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Ivan the Terrible 8.

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