The Life and Ministry of Billy and Shirley Cole

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McPherson intensely disliked Communism and its derivatives as they sought to rule without God; their ultimate goal, she believed, was to remove Christianity from the earth. McPherson's opinion of fascism fared no better; its totalitarian rule was wrongly justified by claiming to represent the power of God. McPherson did not align herself consistently with any broad conservative or liberal political agenda. Instead, she explained if Christianity occupied a central place in national life, and if the components of God, home, school and government were kept together, everything else would fall into place.

It is not accurate to draw a parallel between today's extreme fundamentalist, right-wing Christianity and the style or focus of Sister McPherson. She related that when Christ returns, the Jews would receive him, their suffering will end, "and they will establish at Jerusalem a kingdom more wonderful than the world has known. The reported kidnapping of Aimee Semple McPherson caused a frenzy in national media and changed her life and the course of her career.

After disappearing in May , she reappeared in Mexico five weeks later, stating she had been held for ransom in a desert shack there. The subsequent grand-jury inquiries over her reported kidnapping and escape precipitated continued public interest in her future misfortunes. Presuming she had drowned, searchers combed the beach and nearby area, but could not locate her body. Immediately, McPherson sightings occurred around the county, often in widely divergent locations many miles apart on the same day.

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The Angelus Temple received calls and letters claiming knowledge of McPherson, including demands for ransom. After several weeks of unpromising leads, Mildred Kennedy regarded the messages as hoaxes, believing her daughter dead. Just as the Angelus Temple was preparing for a service commemorating McPherson's death, on June 23, Kennedy received a phone call from Douglas, Arizona. Her distraught daughter was alive resting in a Douglas hospital, and was relating her story to officials.

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McPherson stated, at the beach, she had been approached by a couple who wanted her to pray over their sick child. Walking with them to their car, she suddenly was shoved inside. A cloth laced with some type of drug was held against her face, causing her to pass out.

Eventually, the revivalist was moved to a small shack in the Mexican desert. When her captors were away on errands, McPherson escaped out a window. Collapsing exhausted near a house, the evangelist was finally taken by locals to adjacent Douglas. The turnout at her return to Los Angeles was greeted by 30,—50, people, more than for almost any other personage.

The parade back to the temple elicited a greater turnout than President Woodrow Wilson's visit to Los Angeles, attesting to her popularity and the growing influence of mass media entertainment. To head off developing rumors that her disappearance was not the result of a kidnapping, McPherson, against the advice of her mother, who thought the press would continue to unfavorably exploit the story, presented her complaint in court.

While various speculations were proffered about the reason for McPherson's disappearance, the Los Angeles prosecution settled on the contention McPherson ran off with a former employee, Kenneth Ormiston. She was accused of staying with him in a California seaside cottage he rented in a resort town prior to her May 18 disappearance. After leaving the cottage at the end of May, the pair traveled for the next three weeks and remained hidden.

Then, around June 22, Ormiston drove McPherson to Mexico, dropping her off 3 miles outside of nearby Agua Prieta, where she walked the remaining distance and presented herself to a resident there.

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McPherson maintained all along, without changing anything in her story, that she was taken, held captive by kidnappers, and escaped as she originally described. Defense witnesses corroborated her assertions [] [] [] [] or McPherson herself demonstrated how the disputed parts of her story were plausible. Issues of trial by media and court of public opinion were apparent, as much of the proclaimed evidence against McPherson came from reporters who passed it on to police.

Evidence and testimonies were hotly debated by an evenly divided public. The secrecy of California's grand jury proceedings was ignored by both sides as the Los Angeles prosecution freely passed any new developments on to the press, while the evangelist used her radio station to broadcast her side of the story. - secure ordering site

On November 3, the case was to be moved to jury trial set for mid-January, If convicted, the counts added up to a maximum prison time of 42 years. Witnesses changed their testimonies [] and evidence often had suspicious origins [] or was mishandled and lost while in custody. Regardless of the court's decision, months of unfavorable press reports fixed in much of the public's mind a certainty of McPherson's wrongdoing.

Various influential individuals offered their opinions on the inquiry. The Reverend Robert P. Shuler stated, "Perhaps the most serious thing about this whole situation is the seeming loyalty of thousands to this leader in the face of her evident and positively proven guilt.

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Mencken, noted journalist, satirist, cultural critic, and scholar and an ideological opponent of McPherson, opposite each other in the Scopes "Monkey" trial, unexpectedly came to McPherson's defense. He wrote that since many of that town's residents acquired their ideas "of the true, the good and the beautiful" from the movies and newspapers, "Los Angeles will remember the testimony against her long after it forgets the testimony that cleared her. Numerous allegations of illicit love affairs [] were often directed against McPherson.

Suspected lovers generally denied involvement. During the kidnapping grand jury trial, reporters and investigators tried to link him amorously to McPherson. Alarmed by her rapidly changing style of dress and involvement with Hollywood and its "worldly" lifestyle, in , an Angelus Temple official [] hired detectives to shadow McPherson. Through her windows, the detectives frequently saw McPherson staying up until the early morning hours composing songs, drafting sacred operas, and scribbling diagrams of her illustrated sermons.

No confirmation of adulterous misconduct, [] with perhaps exception of her third marriage as a violation of Church tenets, was ever presented.

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McPherson herself, aware of numerous accusations leveled at her throughout her career, responded only to a small fraction of them, conveying the only thing she had time for was "preaching Jesus". Posthumously, unsubstantiated allegations of extramarital affairs continued to emerge, this time by those who stated to have been her partner, claims not mentioned by them or others while she was still alive. Sinclair stated he worked on a story with McPherson and during one of those times in , the incident purportedly occurred.

Sinclair alluded to a sexual dalliance with McPherson one afternoon along with some gin and ginger. Thirty years after her death, another claim by comedian Milton Berle , in a autobiography, alleges a brief affair with the evangelist. Biographer Matthew Avery Sutton commented, "Berle, a notorious womanizer whose many tales of scandalous affairs were not always true, claimed to have had sex with McPherson on this and one other occasion", both during a year when McPherson was often ill and bedridden.

Sutton noted that Berle's story of a crucifix [] in McPherson's bedroom was not consistent with the coolness of Pentecostal-Catholic relations during that era. Author Raymond L. Cox states: "Mrs. She was incapacitated with illness a full five months of that year, and there is no place on her schedule as reported in her publications and church and travel records for the benefit Berle alleged.

Besides, Roberta also told Cox, "Mother never did a benefit in her life. She had her own charities".

Following her heyday in the s, McPherson carried on with her ministry, but fell out of favor with the press. They once dubbed her the "miracle worker" [] or "miracle woman", reporting extensively on her faith-healing demonstrations, but now were anxious to relay every disturbance in her household to the headlines. Her developing difficulties with her mother, Mildred Kennedy, were starting to take the front page. Yet, McPherson emerged from the kidnapping nationally famous.

Believing that talking pictures had the potential to transform Christianity, McPherson explored Hollywood culture and appeared in newsreels alongside other famous individuals such as Mary Pickford , Frances Perkins , and Franklin D. She lost weight, cut and dyed her hair, began to wear makeup and jewelry, and became stylish and well-attired, leading one critic to determine that McPherson "can out-dress the Hollywood stars".

The solicitation of fame, justified to draw audiences to her and hence to Christ, was more than some in her church organization could accept. They yearned for Sister Aimee "in the old time dress," referring to her previous "trademarked" uniform of a navy cape over a white servant's dress, both purchased inexpensively in bargain basements. Unless parishioners arrived at a service early, frequently they could not get in; all seats were taken. Now that she could afford it, McPherson thought, as well, she wanted her apparel and display to be the best she could present to Jesus.

In early , McPherson immediately set out on a "vindication tour", visiting various cities and taking advantage of the publicity her kidnapping story created to preach the Gospel.

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While McPherson sipped water at her table, Guinan asked if she would speak a few words to the patrons. Delighted, McPherson stood and addressed the jazzed and boozy crowd:. Behind all these beautiful clothes, behind these good times, in the midst of your lovely buildings and shops and pleasures, there is another life. There is something on the other side. Take Him into your hearts.

The unexpected speech that did not judge, and had a conciliatory tone between them and the Divine, earned a thoughtful moment of silence from the crowd, then applause that went on for much longer than the speech took. The revelers were invited to hear her preach at the Glad Tidings Tabernacle on 33rd Street. Her visits to speakeasies and nightclubs added to McPherson's notoriety: newspapers reported heavily on them; and rumors erroneously conveyed she was drinking, smoking and dancing.

Reverend William H. "Billy" Cole

Her mother, along with some other church members, did not understand McPherson's strategy of tearing down barriers between the secular and religious worlds, between the sinner and the saved. In an attempt to curtail her daughter's influence and officially transfer more power to herself, Kennedy initiated a staff-member "vote of confidence" against McPherson, but lost. The two had heatedly argued over management policies and McPherson's changing personal dress and appearance.

The choir could be replaced; [] however, Kennedy's financial and administrative skills had been of crucial importance in growing McPherson's ministry from tent revivals to satellite churches and maintaining its current activities in the Temple.

A series of less able management staff replaced Kennedy, and the Temple became involved in various questionable projects such as hotel building, cemetery plots, and land sales.